His name was given to the Asteroid Vundtia Overview of Wundt's work[ edit ] Wundt was initially a physician and a well-known neurophysiologist before turning to sensory physiology and psychophysics.
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He was convinced that, for example, the process of spatial perception could not solely be explained on a physiological level, but also involved psychological principles.
Wundt founded experimental psychology as a discipline and became a pioneer of cultural psychology. He created a broad single hall tree programme in empirical psychology and developed a system of philosophy and ethics from the basic concepts of his psychology — bringing together several disciplines single hall tree one person.
Wundt's epistemological position — against John Locke single hall tree English empiricism sensualism — was made clear in his book Beiträge zur Theorie der Sinneswahrnehmung Contributions on the Theory of Sensory Perception published inby his use of a quotation from Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz on the title page: "Nihil est in intellectu quod non fuerit in sensu, nisi intellectu ipse.
Principles that are not present in sensory impressions can be recognised in human perception and single hall tree logical inferencescategories of thought, the principle of causalitythe principle of purpose teleologythe principle of emergence and other epistemological principles.
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On examination of the complete works, however, a close relationship between Wundt's theoretical psychology, epistemology and methodology can be seen. English translations are only available for the best-known works: Principles of physiological Psychology only the single-volume 1st ed.
Wundt's work remains largely inaccessible without advanced knowledge of German. Its reception, therefore, is still greatly hampered by misunderstandings, stereotypes and superficial judgements. Mental psychological phenomena are changing processes of consciousness. They can only be determined as an actualityan "immediate reality of an event in the psychological experience".
The delineation frauen single filme categories Wundt considered that reference to the subject Subjektbezugvalue assessment Wertbestimmungthe existence of purpose Zwecksetzungand volitional acts Willenstätigkeit to be specific and fundamental categories for psychology.
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Leibniz wrote: "Souls act according to the laws of final causes, through aspirations, ends and means. Bodies act according to the laws of efficient causes, i. And these two realms, that of efficient causes and that single hall tree final causes, harmonize with one another. Both causalities, however, are not opposites in a dualistic metaphysical sense, but depend on the standpoint  Causal explanations in psychology must be content to seek the effects of the antecedent causes without being able to derive exact predictions.
Using the example of volitional acts, Wundt describes single hall tree inversion in considering cause and effect, ends and meansand explains single hall tree causal and teleological explanations can complement one another to establish a co-ordinated consideration.
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Wundt's position differed from contemporary authors who also favoured parallelism. Instead of being content with the postulate of parallelism, he developed his principles of mental causality in contrast to the natural causality of neurophysiology, and a corresponding methodology. There are two fundamentally different approaches of the postulated psychophysical unit, not just two points-of-view in the sense of Gustav Theodor Fechner's identity hypothesis.
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Psychological and physiological statements exist in two categorically different reference systems ; the important categories are to be emphasised in order to prevent category mistakes as discussed by Nicolai Hartmann.
Apperception Apperception is Wundt's central theoretical concept.
Leibniz described apperception as the process in which the elementary sensory impressions pass into self- consciousnesswhereby individual aspirations striving, volitional acts play an essential role. Wundt developed psychological concepts, used experimental psychological methods and put forward neuropsychological modelling in the frontal cortex of the brain system — in line with today's thinking.
Apperception exhibits a range of theoretical assumptions on the integrative process of consciousness.
The selective control of attention is an elementary example of such active cognitive, emotional and motivational integration. Development theory of the mind The fundamental task is to work out a comprehensive development theory of the mind — from animal psychology to the single hall tree cultural achievements in language, religion and ethics.
Unlike other thinkers of his time, Wundt had no difficulty connecting the development concepts of the humanities in the spirit of Friedrich Hegel and Johann Gottfried Herder with the biological theory of evolution as expounded by Charles Darwin.
Critical realism Wundt determined that "psychology is an empirical science co-ordinating natural science and humanities, and that the considerations of both complement one another in the sense that only together can they create for us a potential empirical knowledge. Definition of psychology Wundt set himself the task of redefining the broad field of psychology between philosophy and physiology, between the humanities and the natural sciences.
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In place of the metaphysical definition as a science of the soul came the definition, based on scientific theory, of empirical psychology as a psychology of consciousness with its own categories and epistemological principles. Psychology examines the "entire experience in its immediately subjective reality.
Psychology is not a science of the individual soul. Life is a uniform mental and physical process that single mann reiter be considered in a variety of ways in order to recognise general principles, particularly the psychological-historical and biological principles of development.
Wundt demanded an understanding of the emotional and the volitional functions, in addition to cognitive features, as equally important aspects of the unitary whole psychophysical process. Psychology cannot be reduced to physiology.
The tools of physiology remain fundamentally insufficient for the task of psychology. Such a project is meaningless "because the interrelations between mental processes would be incomprehensible even if the interrelations between brain processes were as clearly single hall tree as the mechanism of a pocket watch.
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Psychology is concerned with conscious processes. Wundt rejected making subconscious mental processes a topic of scientific psychology for epistemological and methodological reasons.
In his day there were, before Sigmund Freudinfluential authors such as the philosopher Eduard von Hartmannwho postulated a metaphysics of the unconscious.
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Wundt had two fundamental objections. He rejected all primarily metaphysically founded psychology and he saw no reliable methodological approach.
He also soon revised his initial assumptions about unconscious judgements   When Wundt rejects the assumption of "the unconscious" he is also showing his scepticism regarding Fechner's theory of the unconscious and Wundt is perhaps even more greatly influenced by the flood of writing at the time on hypnotism and spiritualism Wundt, While Freud frequently quoted from Wundt's work, Wundt remained sceptical about all hypotheses that operated with the concept of "the unconscious".
Numerous behavioural and psychological variables had already been observed or measured at the Leipzig laboratory.
Wundt stressed that physiological effects, for example the physiological changes accompanying feelingswere only tools of psychology, as were the physical measurements of stimulus intensity in psychophysics. Further developing these methodological approaches one-sidedly would ultimately, however, lead to a behavioural physiology, i. Psychology is an empirical humanities science. Wundt was convinced of the triple status of psychology: as a science of the direct experience it contrasts with the natural sciences that refer to the indirect content of experience and abstract from the subject; as a science "of generally valid forms of direct human experience it is the foundation of the humanities"; among all the empirical sciences it was "the one whose results most benefit the examination single hall tree the general problems of epistemology and ethics — the two fundamental areas of philosophy.
The interrelationships between physiology, philosophy, logic, epistemology and ethics are single hall tree essential for an understanding of Wundt's psychology.
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The core of Wundt's areas of interest and guiding ideas can already be seen in his Vorlesungen über die Menschen- und Tierseele Lectures on Human and Animal Psychology of individual psychology now known as general psychology, i. The initial conceptual outlines of the year-old Wundtled to a long research program, to the founding of the first Institute and to the treatment of psychology as a discipline, as well as to a range of fundamental textbooks and numerous other publications.
Physiology[ edit ] During the Heidelberg years from toWundt published numerous essays on physiology, particularly on experimental neurophysiology, a textbook on human physiology4th ed.